Fluid-rock interaction during high-grade metamorphism: instructive examples from the Southern Marginal Zone of the Limpopo Complex, South Africa

Van Reenen, D.D., Huizenga, J.M., Smit, C.A., and Roering, C. (2014) Fluid-rock interaction during high-grade metamorphism: instructive examples from the Southern Marginal Zone of the Limpopo Complex, South Africa. Precambrian Research, 253. pp. 63-80.

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Abstract

The Southern Marginal Zone of the Limpopo Complex documents strong evidence that CO2-rich (XCO2=0.7–0.9, XH2O= 0.1–0.3) and brine fluids of greatly reduced water activity interacted with cooling metapelitic granulite during the thrust-controlled emplacement at 2.69–2.62 Ga onto the granite-greenstone terrain of the northern Kaapvaal Craton. Interaction of cooling metapelitic granulite with CO2-rich fluids at T < 600–630°C and P < 6 kbar is recognized by the presence of a regional retrograde Opx-out/Ath-in isograd and an associated zone of retrograde hydrated granulites that occupies 4500 km2 of retrogressed crust located in the hanging wall section of the shallow north-dipping Hout River Shear Zone that bounds the Southern Marginal Zone in the south. On the other hand, brine fluids are considered to have triggered the main pulse of anatexis that resulted in production of large volumes of granodioritic-trondhjemitic melts that intruded and started to interact with metapelitic granulitein the deep crust at T > 900°C, P > 7.5 kbar. Interaction of hot melt with metapelitic granulite continued until final emplacement in the middle crust (P = 6 kbar, T = 630°C). Brine fluids also initiated shear zone-hosted metasomatism of quartzo-feldspathic gneisses at T between 600 and 900°C and amphibolite-facies lode-gold mineralization. Available data implicate devolatilization of underthrusted greenstone material as the dominant deep crustal source for infiltrating CO2-rich and brine fluids.

Item ID: 34519
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1872-7433
Keywords: brines; CO2-rich fluid; granulite; metasomatism; retrograde hydration; Southern Marginal Zone of the Limpopo Complex
Funders: National Research Foundation of South Africa, Department of Geology and the Faculty of Science, University of Johannesburg, North-West University, James Cook University (JCU)
Projects and Grants: NRF ( 68288)
Date Deposited: 10 Sep 2014 06:25
FoR Codes: 04 EARTH SCIENCES > 0403 Geology > 040304 Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology @ 100%
SEO Codes: 97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970104 Expanding Knowledge in the Earth Sciences @ 100%
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