Neuronal nitric oxide synthase and sympathetic nerve activity in neurovascular and metabolic systems

Wang, Yutang, and Golledge, Jonathan (2013) Neuronal nitric oxide synthase and sympathetic nerve activity in neurovascular and metabolic systems. Current Neurovascular Research, 10 (1). pp. 81-89.

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Abstract

Nitric oxide, derived from nitric oxide synthase (NOS), plays an important role in regulating sympathetic nerve activity. Neuronal NOS (nNOS) is expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous system. nNOS has a sympathoinhibitory effect under physiological conditions by acting on different sites of the nervous system, including the paraventricular nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the rostral ventrolateral medulla, the carotid body and nerves in the kidney. nNOS is sympathoinhibitory in a range of diseases including chronic heart failure, chronic renal failure, hypertension and diabetes. nNOS is believed to mediate sympathoinhibitory effects induced by a range of signaling pathways including those promoted by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 over-expression; statin therapy; angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers; exercise training; tumor necrosis factor-α blockade; superoxide dismutase mimetics; and estrogen replacement therapy. Increase in nNOS can increase sympathoinhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid activity and decrease sympathoexcitatory angiotensin II signaling and glutamate activity. nNOS may have sympathoexcitatory effects in some circumstances such as chronic heart failure induced by prolonged high salt treatment. The effectiveness of nNOS upregulation in treating sympathetic overactive conditions including chronic heart failure needs to be further investigated.

Item ID: 33348
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1875-5739
Keywords: chronic heart failure, chronic renal failure, hypertension, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase, sympathetic nerve activity
Funders: National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), BUPA Foundation, Queensland Government
Projects and Grants: NHMRC 540404, NHMRC 1021416, NHMRC Australia 1019921
Date Deposited: 26 May 2014 03:01
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1102 Cardiovascular Medicine and Haematology > 110201 Cardiology (incl Cardiovascular Diseases) @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920103 Cardiovascular System and Diseases @ 100%
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