Human-mediated loss of phylogenetic and functional diversity in coral reef fishes

D'agata, Stéphanie, Mouillot, David, Kulbicki, Michel, Andréföuet, Serge, Bellwood, David R., Cinner, Joshua E., Cowman, Peter F., Kronen, Mecki, Pinca, Silvia, and Vigliola, Laurent (2014) Human-mediated loss of phylogenetic and functional diversity in coral reef fishes. Current Biology, 24 (5). pp. 555-560.

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Abstract

Beyond the loss of species richness [1, 2 and 3], human activities may also deplete the breadth of evolutionary history (phylogenetic diversity) and the diversity of roles (functional diversity) carried out by species within communities, two overlooked components of biodiversity. Both are, however, essential to sustain ecosystem functioning and the associated provision of ecosystem services, particularly under fluctuating environmental conditions [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7]. We quantified the effect of human activities on the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity of fish communities in coral reefs, while teasing apart the influence of biogeography and habitat along a gradient of human pressure across the Pacific Ocean. We detected nonlinear relationships with significant breaking points in the impact of human population density on phylogenetic and functional diversity of parrotfishes, at 25 and 15 inhabitants/km^2, respectively, while parrotfish species richness decreased linearly along the same population gradient. Over the whole range, species richness decreased by 11.7%, while phylogenetic and functional diversity dropped by 35.8% and 46.6%, respectively. Our results call for caution when using species richness as a benchmark for measuring the status of ecosystems since it appears to be less responsive to variation in human population densities than its phylogenetic and functional counterparts, potentially imperiling the functioning of coral reef ecosystems.

Item ID: 32921
Item Type: Article (Refereed Research - C1)
ISSN: 1879-0445
Funders: European Union, Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship (FISHECO)
Projects and Grants: FISHECO agreement number IOF-GA-2009-236316
Date Deposited: 30 Apr 2014 09:56
FoR Codes: 05 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 0501 Ecological Applications > 050102 Ecosystem Function @ 50%
06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0602 Ecology > 060205 Marine and Estuarine Ecology (incl Marine Ichthyology) @ 50%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9605 Ecosystem Assessment and Management > 960507 Ecosystem Assessment and Management of Marine Environments @ 50%
97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970105 Expanding Knowledge in the Environmental Sciences @ 50%
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