Developing anti-tobacco messages for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: evidence from a national cross-sectional survey

Gould, Gillian S., Watt, Kerrianne, Stevenson, Leah, McEwen, Andy, Cadet-James, Yvonne, and Clough, Alan R. (2014) Developing anti-tobacco messages for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: evidence from a national cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health, 14. pp. 1-13.

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Abstract

Background Smoking rates in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples remain high, with limited impact of government measures for many subgroups. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in organisational practice for developing anti-tobacco messages for these target populations.

Methods Telephone interviews were conducted with 47 organisation representatives using a structured questionnaire based on health communication and health promotion frameworks. Responses were coded into phases of message development, message types (educational, threat, positive or advocacy), target groups, message recommendations, and evaluations undertaken. Cultural sensitivity for message development was divided into surface structure (use of images, language, demographics) and deep structure (use of socio-cultural values). A categorical principal component analysis explored the key dimensions of the findings and their component relationships.

Results Among organisations interviewed, a community-orientated, bottom-up approach for developing anti-tobacco messages was reported by 47% (n = 24); 55% based message development on a theoretical framework; 87% used a positive benefit appeal; 38% used threat messages. More Aboriginal Medical Services (AMSs) targeted youth (p < 0.005) and advised smokers to quit (p < 0.05) than other types of organisations. AMSs were significantly more likely to report using deep structure in tailoring messages compared with non-government (p < 0.05) and government organisations (p < 0.05). Organisations that were oriented to the general population were more likely to evaluate their programs (p < 0.05). A two-dimensional non-linear principal component analysis extracted components interpreted as "cultural understanding" (bottom-up, community-based approaches, deep structures) and "rigour" (theoretical frameworks, and planned/completed evaluations), and accounted for 53% of the variability in the data.

Conclusion Message features, associated with successful campaigns in other populations, are starting to be used for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. A model is proposed to facilitate the development of targeted anti-tobacco messages for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Organisations could consider incorporating both components of cultural understanding-rigour to enable the growth of evidence-based practice.

Item ID: 32186
Item Type: Article (Refereed Research - C1)
Keywords: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples; Oceania ancestry group; tobacco smoking; anti-tobacco messages; smoking cessation; cultural sensitivity; targeted health promotion messages, evaluation
Additional Information:

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

ISSN: 1471-2458
Funders: National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC), National Heart Foundation of Australia (NHF), Asthma Foundation WA, Cancer Council WA, Central Australian Aboriginal Congress, Dandenong & District Aboriginal Corporation, Malabam Health Board Aboriginal Corporation, Nhulundu Health Service, WA Country Health Service - Population Health, Goldfields, Winnunga Nimmityjah Aboriginal Health Service, Wuchopperen Health Service Limited, Australian Indigenous Info-Net
Projects and Grants: NHF APP1039759
Date Deposited: 16 May 2014 02:20
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111701 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health @ 80%
11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111708 Health and Community Services @ 20%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9203 Indigenous Health > 920303 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health - Health System Performance (incl. Effectiveness of Interventions) @ 60%
92 HEALTH > 9202 Health and Support Services > 920205 Health Education and Promotion @ 40%
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