Thorn fish Terapon jarbua (Forskål) predation on juvenile white shrimp Penaeus indicus H. Milne Edwards and brown shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius): the effect of turbidity, prey density, substrate type and pneumatophore density

Macia, A, Abrantes, K.G.S., and Paula, J. (2003) Thorn fish Terapon jarbua (Forskål) predation on juvenile white shrimp Penaeus indicus H. Milne Edwards and brown shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius): the effect of turbidity, prey density, substrate type and pneumatophore density. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 291 (1). pp. 29-56.

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Abstract

A series of laboratory experiments was conducted at Inhaca Island Marine Biological Station, Mozambique, in order to assess the separate effects of turbidity, prey density, substrate type, pneumatophore density, and the combined effects of turbidity with the latter three, on rate of predation by the thorn fish Terapon jarbua (Forskål, 1775) on white shrimp Penaeus indicus and brown shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros.

Significant interactions between turbidity and the other three factors on shrimp predation for both prey species were detected. Regardless of prey density, increasing turbidity decreased predation on P. indicus, but not on M. monoceros, for which increasing densities reduced the protective effect of turbidity. Increasing prey density increased predation on P. indicus in clear water, and increased predation on M. monoceros in low and high, but not in intermediate turbidity or clear water. The presence of a substrate suitable for burying decreased predation on M. monoceros in clear water, but not in the turbidity levels used. In clear water, solely sandy-shell substrate afforded protection to P. indicus, while in turbid water, no substrate offered significant protection and muddy substrate even increased prey vulnerability to fish probably as a result of increased preys' locomotor activity. Raising pneumatophores density seems to lower the protective value of turbidity for both species. In clear water, only low and high structure density provided a deterrent effect on predation on P. indicus; in turbid water, intermediate and higher structure density increased predation. Increasing structural complexity reduced predation on M. monoceros linearly in clear water; but in low turbid water it increased. In high turbid waters, the increase was only significant in intermediate pneumatophore density. High structural complexities impair the pursuing capacity of fish and thus decreased predation rates. The results indicate that the effective provision of shelter of different habitats depends not only on the various environmental parameters analysed, but also on the way they interact and on the behaviour of prey and predator as well.

Item ID: 31848
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 0022-0981
Keywords: Teraponidae; fish predation; penaeid shrimp; mangrove; substratum; turbidity; shelter; synergistic effects
Funders: SIDA/SAREC
Date Deposited: 05 Jun 2014 01:12
FoR Codes: 06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0602 Ecology > 060205 Marine and Estuarine Ecology (incl Marine Ichthyology) @ 100%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9608 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity > 960802 Coastal and Estuarine Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity @ 100%
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