Response of toe-nailed, roof-to-wall connections to extreme wind loads in a full-scale, timber-framed, hip roof

Henderson, David J., Morrison, Murray J., and Kopp, Gregory A. (2013) Response of toe-nailed, roof-to-wall connections to extreme wind loads in a full-scale, timber-framed, hip roof. Engineering Structures, 56. pp. 1474-1483.

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Abstract

A full-scale, timber-framed, truss, hip roof was subjected to simulated wind loads. Spatially and temporally varying pressures were applied using an array of 58 Pressure Loading Actuators, together with air-boxes covering all roof surfaces. Load cells were incorporated at the top of the wall frame, just below the top plate, to measure the reactions at the toe-nailed roof-to-wall connections. Changes in influence functions and load sharing between adjacent trusses were observed to occur during withdrawal (slip) of the toe-nail connections caused by large magnitude, short duration peak pressures. Even for relatively small displacements, it was observed that the effective tributary area is substantially increased by the incremental withdrawals. This acts to increase the resilience of the roof by allowing more limber and/or more highly loaded connections to transfer loads to stiffer and/or less highly loaded connections. Influence functions, measured both prior to and following damage, were able to predict this behaviour.

Item ID: 31624
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1873-7323
Keywords: wind loads; wind damage; wood-frame houses; influence coefficients; roof-to-wall connections
Funders: NSERC (Strategic Project Grants Program), Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction (ICLR)
Date Deposited: 18 Mar 2014 06:02
FoR Codes: 09 ENGINEERING > 0905 Civil Engineering > 090506 Structural Engineering @ 100%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9610 Natural Hazards > 961010 Natural Hazards in Urban and Industrial Environments @ 100%
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