The need for international terminology and definitions for texture-modified foods and thickened liquid used in dysphagia management: foundations of a global initiative

Cichero, Julie A.Y., Steele, Catriona, Duivestein, Janice, Clavé, Pere, Chen, Jianshe, Kayashita, Jun, Dantas, Roberto, Lecko, Caroline, Speyer, Renee, Lam, Peter, and Murray, Joseph (2013) The need for international terminology and definitions for texture-modified foods and thickened liquid used in dysphagia management: foundations of a global initiative. Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports, 1 (4). pp. 280-291.

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Abstract

Conservative estimates suggest that dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) affects approximately 8 % of the world's population. Dysphagia is associated with malnutrition, dehydration, chest infection and potentially death. While promising treatments are being developed to improve function, the modification of food texture and liquid thickness has become a cornerstone of dysphagia management. Foods are chopped, mashed or puréed to compensate for chewing difficulties or fatigue, improve swallowing safety and avoid asphyxiation. Liquids are typically thickened to slow their speed of transit through the oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing, to avoid aspiration of material into the airway and improve transit to the esophagus. Food texture and liquid modification for dysphagia management occurs throughout the world. However, the names, the number of levels of modification and characteristics vary within and across countries. Multiple labels increase the risk to patient safety. National standardization of terminology and definitions has been promoted as a means to improve patient safety and inter-professional communication. This article documents the need for international standardized terminology and definitions for texture-modified foods and liquids for individuals with dysphagia. Furthermore, it documents the research plan and foundations of a global initiative dedicated to this purpose.

Item ID: 31026
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2167-4833
Keywords: dysphagia, deglutition disorders, thickened liquids, texture modified food, diet
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This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

Funders: Nestlé Nutrition Institute
Date Deposited: 29 Jan 2014 00:31
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1111 Nutrition and Dietetics > 111199 Nutrition and Dietetics not elsewhere classified @ 30%
11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1103 Clinical Sciences > 110315 Otorhinolaryngology @ 70%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) > 920411 Nutrition @ 100%
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