Concurrent training: the acute effects of intensity, sequence and frequency of strength and endurance training on running performance

Doma, Kenji (2013) Concurrent training: the acute effects of intensity, sequence and frequency of strength and endurance training on running performance. PhD thesis, James Cook University.

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Abstract

Introduction: Numerous studies have shown that the combination of strength and endurance training (i.e. concurrent training) induces sub-optimal strength and/or endurance adaptations. However, the investigation of the acute effects of strength training on endurance performance is limited. Study 1 examined the effects of intensity– and volume– (i.e. whole body versus lower body only) of strength training with slow eccentric contractions on running economy (RE) (i.e. below anaerobic threshold [AT]) and time-to-exhaustion (TTE) (i.e. above AT) 6 hours post. The purpose of Study 2 was twofold. First, to examine RE during a two-stage incremental protocol that was combined into an endurance training session 6 hours following a strength training session. Second, to examine RE and TTE the day after strength and endurance training sessions have been undertaken on the same day. Study 3 examined the acute effects of the sequence of strength and endurance training on RE, TTE the following day. Study 4 examined the accumulation effects of combining consecutive-day endurance training with alternating-day strength training on RE and TTE over a 6-day period.

Methods: For Study 1, fifteen trained and moderately endurance trained male runners undertook high intensity whole body (HW), high intensity lower body only (HL) and low intensity whole body (LW) strength training sessions with fast concentric (one second) and slow eccentric (four seconds) contractions in random order. Six hours following each strength training session, a RE test with TTE was conducted to collect cost of running (CR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). For Study 2, twelve trained and moderately trained male runners performed strength and endurance training sessions 6 hours apart with a running performance test conducted the following day. The CR and RPE were collected during the endurance training session whereas CR, RPE and TTE were collected during the running performance test. For Study 3, fourteen trained and moderately trained runners performed strength training prior to running sessions (SR) and a running prior to strength training sessions (RS) in randomized order. The strength training and running sessions were performed 6 hours apart. The day following the SR– and RS sequences, a RE test was conducted to collect CR, RPE and TTE. For Study 4, 16 male and 8 female moderately trained runners were randomly allocated into a concurrent training (CON) group or a strength training (ST) group. The CON group undertook strength training sessions on alternating days in conjunction with endurance training sessions on consecutive days over a 6-day period. The strength and endurance training sessions were separated by 9 hours on the first, third and fifth day. One week later, the experimental group performed endurance training sessions for three consecutive days for control purposes. The CR, RPE and TTE were collected during the endurance training sessions. For Chapter 9, knee extensor torque was measured prior to the strength and endurance training sessions. The strength training exercises in Chapter 7, 8, and 9 were performed at a self-selected pace.

Results: In Study 1, HW, HL and LW sessions had no effect on RE and the LW session had no effect on TTE (P ≥ 0.05). However, HW and HL sessions significantly reduced TTE (P < 0.05). For Study 2, CR significantly increased during the second stage of the endurance training session (P < 0.05). However, during the running performance test, CR and RPE were significantly increased whereas TTE was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In Study 3, CR and RPE significantly increased during SR-RE (P < 0.05) although no significant differences were found during RS-RE (P ≥ 0.05). Time to exhaustion was significantly reduced during SR-RE and RS-RE (P < 0.05). In Study 4, the CON group showed a significant reduction in TTE during the experimental days (P < 0.05) although no differences were found during the control days (P ≥ 0.05). Torque was significantly reduced during the experimental days (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found in CR and RPE between the endurance training sessions (P ≥ 0.05). No significant differences were found in torque for the ST group and during the control days for the CON group (P ≥ 0.05).

Conclusion: According to Study 1, a 6 hour recovery period following HW, HL and LW sessions with slow eccentric contractions does not attenuate running performance below AT although affected above AT for trained and moderately trained runners. For Study 2, the findings showed that RE is impaired 6 hours following a strength training session performed at a self-selected pace. Furthermore, strength and endurance training performed on the same day appears to impair running performance the following day. For Study 3, SR-sequence impaired both sub-maximal running performance (i.e. RE) and running performance at maximum effort (i.e. TTE) compared to the RS-sequence which only affected running performance at maximum effort the following day. Subsequently, the accumulation of fatigue appears to be greater during the SR- compared to the RS-sequence. For Study 4, running performance at maximum effort is impaired and torque is consistently reduced with a concomitant increase in rating of muscle –soreness and –fatigue when combining alternatingday strength training with consecutive-day high intensity endurance training.

Practical applications: The attenuation in running performance suggests that strength training may compromise the quality of endurance training sessions. In order to minimize potential fatigue during concurrent training, the following recommendations can be given for trained and moderately trained runners: 1. when combining a high– or low– intensity strength training session using slow eccentric contractions with a low to moderate intensity running session, at least a 6- hour recovery period between each mode of training session should be provided, however; 2. at least a 9-hour recovery period is needed with high intensity self-paced strength training; 3. perform moderate to high intensity endurance training sessions 6 hours prior to high intensity strength training sessions on the same day when undertaking low to moderate running sessions the following day; 4. prescribe high intensity self-paced strength training sessions with high intensity running sessions on alternating days.

Item ID: 29910
Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Keywords: performance enhancement; training combinations; endurance training; strength training; training schedule
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Publications arising from this thesis are available from the Related URLs field. The publications are:

Chapter 3. Doma, Kenji, Deakin, Glen B., Leicht, Anthony S., and Sealey, Rebecca M. (2012) The reliability of running economy among trained distance runners and field-based players. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness. 10(2). pp.90-96.

Chapter 4. Doma, K., Deakin, G.B., and Sealey, R.M. (2012) The reliability of lower extremity and thoracic kinematics at various running speeds. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 33 (5). pp. 364-369.

Chapter 6. Doma, Kenji, and Deakin, Glen Bede The acute effects intensity and volume of strength training on running performance. European Journal of Sport Science, iFirst article. pp. 1-9. (In Press)

Chapter 7. Doma, Kenji, and Deakin, Glen Bede (2013) The effects of combined strength and endurance training on running performance the following day. International Journal of Sport and Health Science, 11. pp. 1-9.

Appendix A. Doma, K., and Deakin, G. (2011) The effects of intensity and type of resistance training on muscle force generation capacity immediately- and 6 hours post-training. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 14 (Supplement 1). e110-e110.

Appendix D. Doma, Kenji, and Deakin, Glen (2012) Investigation of running economy 6 hours post full body and lower body strength training. Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning, 20 (Supplement 1). pp. 94-96.

Appendix G. Doma, Kenji, and Deakin, Glen (2013) The cumulative effects of strength and endurance training sessions on muscle force generation capacity over four days. Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning, 21 (Supplement 1). pp. 34-38.

Date Deposited: 25 Oct 2013 00:45
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1106 Human Movement and Sports Science > 110601 Biomechanics @ 50%
11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1106 Human Movement and Sports Science > 110602 Exercise Physiology @ 50%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9299 Other Health > 929999 Health not elsewhere classified @ 100%
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