Antifungal therapy and management of complications of cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus gattii

Chen, Sharon C. -A., Korman, Tony M., Slavin, Monica A., Marriott, Deborah, Byth, Karen, Bak, Narin, Currie, Bart J., Hajkowicz, Krispin, Heath, Christopher H., Kidd, Sarah, McBride, William J.H., Meyer, Wieland, Murray, Ronan, Playford, E. Geoffrey, and Sorrell, Tania C. (2013) Antifungal therapy and management of complications of cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus gattii. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 57 (4). pp. 543-551.

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Abstract

Background. We describe antifungal therapy and management of complications due to Cryptococcus gattii infection in 86 Australian patients followed for at least 12 months.

Methods. Patient data from culture-confirmed cases (2000-2007) were recorded at diagnosis, 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Clinical, laboratory, and treatment variables associated with raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) were determined.

Results. Seven of 10 patients with lung infection received amphotericin B (AMB) induction therapy (6 with 5-flucytosine [5-FC] for a median of 2 weeks); median duration of therapy including azole eradication therapy was 41 weeks, with a complete/partial clinical response in 78%. For neurologic disease, 88% of patients received AMB, 78% with 5-FC, for a median of 6 weeks. The median total course was 18 months. Nine patients receiving fluconazole induction therapy were reinduced with AMB plus 5-FC for clinical failure. Raised ICP (31 patients) was associated with initial abnormal neurology, and neurologic sequelae and/or death at 12 months (both P = .02); cerebrospinal fluid drains/shunts were placed in 58% of patients and in 64% of 22 patients with hydrocephalus. IRIS developed 2-12 months after starting antifungals in 8 patients, who presented with new/enlarging brain lesions. Risk factors included female sex, brain involvement at presentation, and higher median CD4 counts (all P < .05); corticosteroids reduced cryptococcoma-associated edema. Conclusions. Induction AMB plus 5-FC is indicated for C. gattii neurologic cryptococcosis (6 weeks) and when localized to lung (2 weeks). Shunting was often required to control raised ICP. IRIS presents with cerebral manifestations.

Item ID: 29169
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1537-6591
Keywords: Cryptococcus gattii, antifungal therapy, neurologic complications, IRIS
Date Deposited: 04 Sep 2013 05:27
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1103 Clinical Sciences > 110309 Infectious Diseases @ 50%
11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1108 Medical Microbiology > 110802 Medical Infection Agents (incl Prions) @ 50%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920109 Infectious Diseases @ 100%
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