An enzymatically inactivated hemoglobinase from Necator americanus induces neutralizing antibodies against multiple hookworm species and protects dogs against heterologous hookworm infection

Pearson, Mark S., Bethony, Jeffrey M., Pickering, Darren A., de Oliveira, Luciana M., Jariwala, Amar, Santiago, Helton, Miles, Aaron P., Zhan, Bin, Jiang, Desheng, Ranjit, Najju, Mulvenna, Jason, Tribolet, Leon, Plieskatt, Jordan, Smith, Tracey, Bottazzi, Maria Elena, Jones, Kathryn, Keegan, Brian, Hotez, Peter J., and Loukas, Alex (2009) An enzymatically inactivated hemoglobinase from Necator americanus induces neutralizing antibodies against multiple hookworm species and protects dogs against heterologous hookworm infection. FASEB Journal, 23 (9). pp. 3009-3017.

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Abstract

Hookworms digest hemoglobin from erythrocytes via a proteolytic cascade that begins with the aspartic protease, APR-1. Ac-APR-1 from the dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, protects dogs against hookworm infection via antibodies that neutralize enzymatic activity and interrupt blood-feeding. Toward developing a human hookworm vaccine, we expressed both wild-type (Na-APR-1(wt)) and mutant (Na-APR-1(mut)-mutagenesis of the catalytic aspartic acids) forms of Na-APR-1 from the human hookworm, Necator americanus. Refolded Na-APR-1(wt) was catalytically active, and Na-APR-1(mut) was catalytically inactive but still bound substrates. Vaccination of canines with Na-APR-1(mut) and heterologous challenge with A. caninum resulted in significantly reduced parasite egg burdens (P=0.034) and weight loss (P=0.022). Vaccinated dogs also had less gut pathology, fewer adult worms, and reduced blood loss compared to controls but these did not reach statistical significance. Vaccination with Na-APR-1(mut) induced antibodies that bound the native enzyme in the parasite gut and neutralized enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1(wt) and APR-1 orthologues from three other hookworm species that infect humans. IgG1 against Na-APR-1(mut) was the most prominently detected antibody in sera from people resident in high-transmission areas for N. americanus, indicating that natural boosting may occur in exposed humans. Na-APR-1(mut) is now a lead antigen for the development of an antihematophagy vaccine for human hookworm disease.

Item ID: 28813
Item Type: Article (Refereed Research - C1)
Keywords: vaccine, protease, hemoglobin, neglected tropical disease
ISSN: 1530-6860
Date Deposited: 18 Sep 2013 03:32
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1108 Medical Microbiology > 110803 Medical Parasitology @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920109 Infectious Diseases @ 100%
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