Transforming growth factor-β1 treatment of oral cancer induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and promotes bone invasion via enhanced activity of osteoclasts

Quan, Jingjing, Elhousiny, Moustafa, Johnson, Newell W., and Gao, Jin (2013) Transforming growth factor-β1 treatment of oral cancer induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and promotes bone invasion via enhanced activity of osteoclasts. Clinical and Experimental Metastasis, 30 (5). pp. 659-670.

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Abstract

This study investigates relationships between EMT and bone invasion by OSCC. Three OSCC cell lines, SCC25, HN5, and Tca8113 were artificially induced to display EMT by adding 5 ng/mL of TGF-β1 to culture media for 1–3 days. Cell morphology and phenotypic changes was examined by immunocytochemical staining of CK and VIM. EMT markers, cell-invasion factors, and osteoclast-related molecules were analysed at mRNA, gelatine and protein levels by real-time PCR, gelatine zymography and Western blotting respectively. Mature osteoclasts differentiated from Raw264.7 cells were treated by conditioned medium (CM) of OSCC cells with/without TGF-β1. Immunohistochemistry was performed to validate proteins of CK, VIM, E-cad and Snail1 in OSCC tissue samples with bone invasion. Results showed minimal staining of VIM was found in SCC25 and HN5, while Tca8113 cells stained strongly. EMT markers Twist1 and N-cad were up-regulated; Snail1 and E-cad down-regulated in all cells. Of factors associated with invasion, MMP-2 was unchanged and MMP-9 increased in SCC25 and Tca8113, while MMP-2 was increased and MMP-9 unchanged in HN5. For osteoclast-related molecules, both MT1-MMP and RANKL were up-regulated, while OPG was down-regulated in all cells. CM of OSCC cells pre-treated with TGF-β1 showed to prolong survival of osteoclasts up to 4 days. All target molecules were validated in OSCC samples of bone invasion. These findings suggest that TGF-β1 not only induces EMT to increase the capacity of OSCC for invasion, but also promotes factors which prolong osteoclast survival. TGF-β1 may enhance the ability of MMP2/9 in resorbing bone and favouring invasion of cancer cells.

Item ID: 28757
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1573-7276
Keywords: bone invasion, osteoclast, oral squamous cell carcinoma, transforming growth factor-β1, epithelial-mesenchymal transition
Additional Information:

© The Author(s) 2013. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

Funders: China Scholarship Council, Griffith University, National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Australia-China Exchange Fellowship, Australian Dental Research Foundation (ADRF)
Projects and Grants: China Scholarship Council 2008638008
Date Deposited: 07 Aug 2013 05:34
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1112 Oncology and Carcinogenesis > 111201 Cancer Cell Biology @ 70%
11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1105 Dentistry > 110599 Dentistry not elsewhere classified @ 30%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920102 Cancer and Related Disorders @ 100%
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