Malaria Indicator Survey 2007, Ethiopia: coverage and use of major malaria prevention and control interventions

Jima, Daddi, Getachew, Asefaw, Bilak, Hana, Steketee, Richard W., Emerson, Paul M., Graves, Patricia M., Gebre, Teshome, Reithinger, Richard, Hwang, Jimee, and Ethiopia Malaria Indicator Survey Working Group, (2010) Malaria Indicator Survey 2007, Ethiopia: coverage and use of major malaria prevention and control interventions. Malaria Journal, 9 (1). 58. pp. 1-12.

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Background: In 2005, a nationwide survey estimated that 6.5% of households in Ethiopia owned an insecticide-treated net (ITN), 17% of households had been sprayed with insecticide, and 4% of children under five years of age with a fever were taking an anti-malarial drug. Similar to other sub-Saharan African countries scaling-up malaria interventions, the Government of Ethiopia set an ambitious national goal in 2005 to (i) provide 100% ITN coverage in malarious areas, with a mean of two ITNs per household; (ii) to scale-up indoor residual spraying of households with insecticide (IRS) to cover 30% of households targeted for IRS; and (iii) scale-up the provision of case management with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), particularly at the peripheral level.

Methods: A nationally representative malaria indicator survey (MIS) was conducted in Ethiopia between September and December 2007 to determine parasite and anaemia prevalence in the population at risk and to assess coverage, use and access to scaled-up malaria prevention and control interventions. The survey used a two-stage random cluster sample of 7,621 households in 319 census enumeration areas. A total of 32,380 people participated in the survey. Data was collected using standardized Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group MIS household and women's questionnaires, which were adapted to the local context.

Results: Data presented is for households in malarious areas, which according to the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health are defined as being located <2,000 m altitude. Of 5,083 surveyed households, 3,282 (65.6%) owned at least one ITN. In ITN-owning households, 53.2% of all persons had slept under an ITN the prior night, including 1,564/2,496 (60.1%) children <5 years of age, 1,891/3,009 (60.9%) of women 15 - 49 years of age, and 166/266 (65.7%) of pregnant women. Overall, 906 (20.0%) households reported to have had IRS in the past 12 months. Of 747 children with reported fever in the two weeks preceding the survey, 131 (16.3%) sought medical attention within 24 hours. Of those with fever, 86 (11.9%) took an anti-malarial drug and 41 (4.7%) took it within 24 hours of fever onset. Among 7,167 surveyed individuals of all ages, parasitaemia as estimated by microscopy was 1.0% (95% CI 0.5 - 1.5), with 0.7% and 0.3% due to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, respectively. Moderate-severe anaemia (haemoglobin <8 g/dl) was observed in 239/3,366 (6.6%, 95% CI 4.9-8.3) children <5 years of age.

Conclusions: Since mid-2005, the Ethiopian National Malaria Control Programme has considerably scaled-up its malaria prevention and control interventions, demonstrating the impact of strong political will and a committed partnership. The MIS showed, however, that besides sustaining and expanding malaria intervention coverage, efforts will have to be made to increase intervention access and use. With ongoing efforts to sustain and expand malaria intervention coverage, to increase intervention access and use, and with strong involvement of the community, Ethiopia expects to achieve its targets in terms of coverage and uptake of interventions in the coming years and move towards eliminating malaria.

Item ID: 28617
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1475-2875
Keywords: malaria indicator survey, ethiopia, malaria prevention, control internventions
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This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Date Deposited: 03 Sep 2013 22:49
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111799 Public Health and Health Services not elsewhere classified @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) > 920499 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) not elsewhere classified @ 100%
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