Structure and activity of α-conotoxin PeIA at nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes and GABA(B) receptor-coupled N-type calcium channels

Daly, Norelle L., Callaghan, Brid, Clark, Richard J., Nevin, Simon T., Adams, David J., and Craik, David J. (2011) Structure and activity of α-conotoxin PeIA at nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes and GABA(B) receptor-coupled N-type calcium channels. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 286 (12). pp. 10233-102377.

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α-Conotoxins are peptides from cone snails that target the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). RgIA and Vc1.1 have analgesic activity in animal pain models. Both peptides target the α9α10 nAChR and inhibit N-type calcium channels via GABA(B) receptor activation, but the mechanism of action of analgesic activity is unknown. PeIA has previously been shown to inhibit the α9α10 and α3β2 nAChRs. In this study, we have determined the structure of PeIA and shown that it is also a potent inhibitor of N-type calcium channels via GABA(B) receptor activation. The characteristic α-conotoxin fold is present in PeIA, but it has a different distribution of surface-exposed hydrophobic and charged residues compared with Vc1.1. Thus, the surface residue distribution, rather than the overall fold, appears to be responsible for the 50-fold increase in selectivity at the α3β2 nAChR by PeIA relative to Vc1.1. In contrast to their difference in potency at the nAChR, the equipotent activity of PeIA and Vc1.1 at the GABA(B) receptor suggests that the GABA(B) receptor is more tolerant to changes in surface residues than is the nAChR. The conserved Asp-Pro-Arg motif of Vc1.1 and RgIA, which is crucial for potency at the α9α10 nAChR, is not required for activity at GABA(B) receptor/N-type calcium channels because PeIA has a His-Pro-Ala motif in the equivalent position. This study shows that different structure-activity relationships are associated with the targeting of the GABA(B) receptor versus nAChRs. Furthermore, there is probably a much more diverse range of conotoxins that target the GABA(B) receptor than currently realized.

Item ID: 27039
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1083-351X
Keywords: GABA receptors; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; peptide conformation; peptides; toxins
Funders: Australian Research Council (ARC), National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)
Projects and Grants: DP0986281, APP456074
Date Deposited: 23 May 2013 01:59
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1101 Medical Biochemistry and Metabolomics > 110106 Medical Biochemistry: Proteins and Peptides (incl Medical Proteomics) @ 100%
SEO Codes: 97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences @ 100%
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