Prevention of canine leishmaniosis in a hyper-endemic area using a combination of 10% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin

Otranto, Domenico, Dantas-Torre, Filipe, de Caprariis, Donato, Di Paola, Giancarlo, Tarallo, Viviana D., Latrofa, Maria S., Lia, Riccado P., Annoscia, Giada, Breitshwerdt, Edward B., Cantacessi, Cinzia, Capelli, Gioia, and Stanneck, Dorothee (2013) Prevention of canine leishmaniosis in a hyper-endemic area using a combination of 10% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin. PLoS ONE, 8 (2). e56374. pp. 1-8.

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Abstract

Background: Dogs are the main reservoir hosts of Leishmania infantum, the agent of human zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis. This study investigated the efficacy of a polymer matrix collar containing a combination of 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin as a novel prophylactic measure to prevent L. infantum infections in young dogs from a hyper-endemic area of southern Italy, with a view towards enhancing current control strategies against both human and canine leishmaniosis.

Methodology/Principal Findings: The study was carried out on 124 young dogs, of which 63 were collared (Group A) while 61 were left untreated (Group B), from March-April 2011 until March 2012. Blood and skin samples were collected at baseline (April 2011) and at the first, second, third and fourth follow-up time points (July, September 2011 and November 2011, and March 2012, respectively). Bone marrow and conjunctiva were sampled at baseline and at the fourth follow-up. Serological, cytological and molecular tests were performed to detect the presence of L. infantum in the different tissues collected. At the end of the trial, no dog from Group A proved positive for L. infantum at any follow-up, whereas 22 dogs from Group B were infected (incidence density rate = 45.1%); therefore, the combination of 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin was 100% efficacious for the prevention of L. infantum infection in young dogs prior to their first exposure to the parasite in a hyper-endemic area for CanL.

Conclusions: The use of collars containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin conferred long-term protection against infection by L. infantum to dogs located in a hyper-endemic area, thus representing a reliable and sustainable strategy to decrease the frequency and spread of this disease among the canine population which will ultimately result in the reduction of associated risks to human health.

Item ID: 26392
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1932-6203
Keywords: canine-vector borne diseases; pharmacological control; prophylaxis; field-trial
Additional Information:

© 2013 Otranto et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funders: Bayer Animal Health GmbH, Germany
Date Deposited: 15 Apr 2013 00:41
FoR Codes: 07 AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES > 0707 Veterinary Sciences > 070708 Veterinary Parasitology @ 80%
07 AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES > 0707 Veterinary Sciences > 070710 Veterinary Pharmacology @ 20%
SEO Codes: 86 MANUFACTURING > 8609 Veterinary Pharmaceutical Products > 860999 Veterinary Pharmaceutical Products not elsewhere classified @ 70%
97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970107 Expanding Knowledge in the Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences @ 30%
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