Gymnodinium and related dinoflagellates

Heimann, Kirsten (2012) Gymnodinium and related dinoflagellates. In: UNSPECIFIED, (ed.) Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (eLS). Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 1-17.

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Mounting molecular evidence and ultrastructural differences, in particular the type of apical groove and flagellar apparatus architecture, have provided sufficient evidence over the past decade to demand a revision of the dinoflagellate genus Gymnodinium, as it contained a complex assemblage of evolutionarily unrelated species. Consequently, the genus has now been split into four genera: Gymnodinium, Akashiwo, Karenia and Karlodinium. The only remaining harmful species within the genus Gymnodinium is Gymnodinium catenatum, a species that causes paralytic shellfish poisoning, and it was recently introduced into Australian waters via ship ballast water. The genus Akashiwo contains no toxic representatives, whilst the genera Karenia and Karlodinium are close sister lineages with both genera incorporating ichthyotoxic species. Many representatives form blooms and produce toxins thus providing valuable insight into fundamental phylogenetic and biochemical questions. Taxa assigned to these genera are known to be toxin producers of extreme importance to biomedicine.

Item ID: 25403
Item Type: Book Chapter (Reference)
ISBN: 978-0-470-01590-2
Keywords: dinoflagellate; Gymnodinium; Karenia; Akashiwo; Karlodinium; toxic algae; voltage-gated sodium channels; harmful algal blooms; flagellar apparatus ultrastructure; apical groove
Date Deposited: 11 Apr 2013 02:43
FoR Codes: 06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0607 Plant Biology > 060701 Phycology (incl Marine Grasses) @ 100%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9605 Ecosystem Assessment and Management > 960503 Ecosystem Assessment and Management of Coastal and Estuarine Environments @ 100%
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