Low birth weight due to intrauterine growth restriction and/or preterm birth: effects on nephron number and long-term renal health

Zohdi, Vladislava, Sutherland, Megan R., Lim, Kyungjoon, Gubhaju, Lina, Zimanyi, Monika A., and Black, M. Jane (2012) Low birth weight due to intrauterine growth restriction and/or preterm birth: effects on nephron number and long-term renal health. International Journal of Nephrology, 2012. 136942. pp. 1-13.

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Abstract

Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated a strong association between low birth weight and long-term renal disease. A potential mediator of this long-term risk is a reduction in nephron endowment in the low birth weight infant at the beginning of life. Importantly, nephrons are only formed early in life; during normal gestation, nephrogenesis is complete by about 32–36 weeks, with no new nephrons formed after this time during the lifetime of the individual. Hence, given that a loss of a critical number of nephrons is the hallmark of renal disease, an increased severity and acceleration of renal disease is likely when the number of nephrons is already reduced prior to disease onset. Low birth weight can result from intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) or preterm birth; a high proportion of babies born prematurely also exhibit IUGR. In this paper, we describe how IUGR and preterm birth adversely impact on nephrogenesis and how a subsequent reduced nephron endowment at the beginning of life may lead to long-term risk of renal disease, but not necessarily hypertension.

Item ID: 25344
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2090-2158
Additional Information:

This is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)

Date Deposited: 08 Mar 2013 01:51
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1103 Clinical Sciences > 110312 Nephrology and Urology @ 50%
11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1114 Paediatrics and Reproductive Medicine > 111401 Foetal Development and Medicine @ 50%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9205 Specific Population Health (excl. Indigenous Health) > 920501 Child Health @ 100%
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