Geology and genesis of Kafang Cu-Sn deposit, Gejiu district, SW China

Cheng, Yanbo, Mao, Jingwen, Rusk, Brian, and Yang, Zongxi (2012) Geology and genesis of Kafang Cu-Sn deposit, Gejiu district, SW China. Ore Geology Reviews, 48. pp. 180-196.

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Abstract

Kafang is one of the main ore deposits in the world-class Gejiu polymetallic tin district, SW China. There are three main mineralization types in the Kafang deposit, i.e., skarn Cu-Sn ores, stratiform Cu ores hosted by basalt and stratiform Cu-Sn ores hosted by carbonate. The skarn mainly consists of garnet and pyroxene, and retrograde altered rocks. These retrograde altered rocks are superimposed on the skarn and are composed of actinolite, chlorite, epidote and phlogopite. Major ore minerals are chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, cassiterite, pyrite and scheelite. Sulfur and Pb isotopic components hint that the sources of different types of mineralization are distinctive, and indicate that the skarn ore mainly originated from granitic magma, whereas the basalt-hosted Cu ores mainly derived from basalt Microthermometry results of fluid inclusions display a gradual change during the ore-forming process. The homogenization temperature of different types of inclusions continuously decreases from early to late mineralization stages. The salinities and freezing temperatures exhibit similar evolutionary tendencies with the T(homogenizaion), while the densities of the different types keep constant, the majority being less than 1. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic values (δ¹⁸O and δD) of the hydrothermal fluids fall within ranges of 3.1 to 7.7‰ with an average of 6.15‰ calculated at the corresponding homogenization temperature, and -73 and -98‰ with an average of -86.5‰, respectively. Microthermometry data and H-O isotopes indicate that the ore-forming fluid of the Kafang deposit is mainly derived from magma in the early stage and a mixture of meteoric and magmatic water in late stage. Molybdenite Re-Os age of the skarn type mineralization is 83.4 ± 2.1 Ma, and the stratiform ores hosted by basalt is 84.2 ± 7.3 Ma, which are consistent with the LA-ICP-MS zircon age of the Xinshan granite intrusion (83.1 ± 0.4 Ma). The evidence listed above reflects the fact that different ore styles in the Kafang deposit belong to the same mineralization system.

Item ID: 24523
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 0169-1368
Keywords: skarn type, basalt-hosted, carbonate-hosted, stratiform, Cu-Sn deposit, ore genesis, Kafang, Gejiu
Date Deposited: 09 Jan 2013 05:26
FoR Codes: 04 EARTH SCIENCES > 0402 Geochemistry > 040201 Exploration Geochemistry @ 100%
SEO Codes: 84 MINERAL RESOURCES (excl. Energy Resources) > 8401 Mineral Exploration > 840102 Copper Ore Exploration @ 50%
97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970104 Expanding Knowledge in the Earth Sciences @ 50%
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