Mosquito feeding assays to determine the infectiousness of naturally infected Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriers

Bousema, Teun, Dinglasan, Rhoel R., Morlais, Isabelle, Gouagna, Louis C., van Warmerdam, Travis, Awono-Ambene, Parfait H., Bonnet, Sarah, Diallo, Mouctar, Coulibaly, Mamadou, Tchuinkam, Timoleon, Mulder, Bert, Targett, Geoff, Drakeley, Chris, Sutherland, Colin, Robert, Vincent, Doumbo, Ogobara, Toure, Yeya, Graves, Patricia M., Roeffen, Will, Sauerwein, Robert, Birkett, Ashley, Locke, Emily, Morin, Merribeth, Wu, Yimin, and Churcher, Thomas S. (2012) Mosquito feeding assays to determine the infectiousness of naturally infected Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriers. PLoS ONE, 7 (8). e42821. pp. 1-13.

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Abstract

Introduction: In the era of malaria elimination and eradication, drug-based and vaccine-based approaches to reduce malaria transmission are receiving greater attention. Such interventions require assays that reliably measure the transmission of Plasmodium from humans to Anopheles mosquitoes.

Methods: We compared two commonly used mosquito feeding assay procedures: direct skin feeding assays and membrane feeding assays. Three conditions under which membrane feeding assays are performed were examined: assays with i) whole blood, ii) blood pellets resuspended with autologous plasma of the gametocyte carrier, and iii) blood pellets resuspended with heterologous control serum.

Results: 930 transmission experiments from Cameroon, The Gambia, Mali and Senegal were included in the analyses. Direct skin feeding assays resulted in higher mosquito infection rates compared to membrane feeding assays (odds ratio 2.39, 95% confidence interval 1.94-2.95) with evident heterogeneity between studies. Mosquito infection rates in membrane feeding assays and direct skin feeding assays were strongly correlated (p < 0.0001). Replacing the plasma of the gametocyte donor with malaria naive control serum resulted in higher mosquito infection rates compared to own plasma (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.68-2.19) while the infectiousness of gametocytes may be reduced during the replacement procedure (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.52-0.70).

Conclusions: Despite a higher efficiency of direct skin feeding assays, membrane feeding assays appear suitable tools to compare the infectiousness between individuals and to evaluate transmission-reducing interventions. Several aspects of membrane feeding procedures currently lack standardization; this variability makes comparisons between laboratories challenging and should be addressed to facilitate future testing of transmission-reducing interventions.

Item ID: 23821
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1932-6203
Funders: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, European FP7 Framework, PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative
Projects and Grants: REDMAL Project #242079
Date Deposited: 31 Oct 2012 05:30
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111706 Epidemiology @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) > 920404 Disease Distribution and Transmission (incl. Surveillance and Response) @ 100%
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