Chloramphenicol with fluid and electrolyte therapy cures terminally ill green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) with chytridiomycosis

Young, Sam, Speare, Rick, Berger, Lee, and Skerratt, Lee F. (2012) Chloramphenicol with fluid and electrolyte therapy cures terminally ill green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) with chytridiomycosis. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine , 43 (2). pp. 330-337.

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Abstract

Terminal changes in frogs infected with the amphibian fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) include epidermal degeneration leading to inhibited epidermal electrolyte transport, systemic electrolyte disturbances, and asystolic cardiac arrest. There are few reports of successful treatment of chytridiomycosis and none that include curing amphibians with severe disease. Three terminally ill green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) with heavy Bd infections were cured using a combination of continuous shallow immersion in 20 mg/L chloramphenicol solution for 14 days, parenteral isotonic electrolyte fluid therapy for 6 days, and increased ambient temperature to 28°C for 14 days. All terminally ill frogs recovered rapidly to normal activity levels and appetite within 5 days of commencing treatment. In contrast, five untreated terminally ill L. caerulea with heavy Bd infections died within 24-48 hr of becoming moribund. Subclinical infections in 15 experimentally infected L. caerulea were cured within 28 days by continuous shallow immersion in 20 mg/L chloramphenicol solution without adverse effects. This is the first known report of a clinical treatment protocol for curing terminally ill Bd-infected frogs.

Item ID: 23077
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1937-2825
Keywords: Amphibian chytrid, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, chloramphenicol, chytridiomycosis, cure, treatment
Funders: Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage
Date Deposited: 15 Aug 2012 05:31
FoR Codes: 07 AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES > 0707 Veterinary Sciences > 070706 Veterinary Medicine @ 50%
07 AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES > 0707 Veterinary Sciences > 070710 Veterinary Pharmacology @ 50%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9604 Control of Pests, Diseases and Exotic Species > 960499 Control of Pests, Diseases and Exotic Species not elsewhere classified @ 50%
96 ENVIRONMENT > 9608 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity > 960805 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity at Regional or Larger Scales @ 50%
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