Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses

Tscharntke, Teja, Tylianakis, Jason M., Rand, Tatyana A., Didham, Raphael K., Fahrig, Lenore, Batáry, Péter, Bengtsson, Janne, Clough, Yann, Crist, Thomas O., Dormann, Carsten F., Ewers, Robert M., Fründ, Jochen, Holt, Robert D., Holzschuh, Andrea, Klein, Alexandra M., Kleijn, David, Kremen, Claire, Landis, Doug A., Laurance, William, Lindenmayer, David, Scherber, Christoph, Sodhi, Navjot, Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf, Thies, Carsten, van der Putten, Wim H., and Westphal, Catrin (2012) Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses. Biological Reviews, 87 (3). pp. 661-685.

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Abstract

Understanding how landscape characteristics affect biodiversity patterns and ecological processes at local and landscape scales is critical for mitigating effects of global environmental change. In this review, we use knowledge gained from human-modified landscapes to suggest eight hypotheses, which we hope will encourage more systematic research on the role of landscape composition and configuration in determining the structure of ecological communities, ecosystem functioning and services. We organize the eight hypotheses under four overarching themes. Section A: landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns' includes (1) the landscape species pool hypothesisthe size of the landscape-wide species pool moderates local (alpha) biodiversity, and (2) the dominance of beta diversity hypothesislandscape-moderated dissimilarity of local communities determines landscape-wide biodiversity and overrides negative local effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Section B: landscape moderation of population dynamics' includes (3) the cross-habitat spillover hypothesislandscape-moderated spillover of energy, resources and organisms across habitats, including between managed and natural ecosystems, influences landscape-wide community structure and associated processes and (4) the landscape-moderated concentration and dilution hypothesisspatial and temporal changes in landscape composition can cause transient concentration or dilution of populations with functional consequences. Section C: landscape moderation of functional trait selection includes (5) the landscape-moderated functional trait selection hypothesislandscape moderation of species trait selection shapes the functional role and trajectory of community assembly, and (6) the landscape-moderated insurance hypothesislandscape complexity provides spatial and temporal insurance, i.e. high resilience and stability of ecological processes in changing environments. Section D: landscape constraints on conservation management' includes (7) the intermediate landscape-complexity hypothesislandscape-moderated effectiveness of local conservation management is highest in structurally simple, rather than in cleared (i.e. extremely simplified) or in complex landscapes, and (8) the landscape-moderated biodiversity versus ecosystem service management hypothesislandscape-moderated biodiversity conservation to optimize functional diversity and related ecosystem services will not protect endangered species. Shifting our research focus from local to landscape-moderated effects on biodiversity will be critical to developing solutions for future biodiversity and ecosystem service management.

Item ID: 23029
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1464-7931
Keywords: beta diversity, belowground-aboveground patterns, conservation management, ecosystem functioning and services, functional traits, insurance hypothesis, landscape composition and configuration, multitrophic interactions, resilience and stability, spatial heterogeneity
Date Deposited: 15 Aug 2012 05:25
FoR Codes: 05 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 0502 Environmental Science and Management > 050202 Conservation and Biodiversity @ 100%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9608 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity > 960899 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity of Environments not elsewhere classified @ 100%
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