Monitoring of wild birds for Newcastle disease virus in north Queensland, Australia

Hoque, M.A., Burgess, G.W., Karo-Karo, D., Cheam, A.L., and Skerratt, L.F. (2012) Monitoring of wild birds for Newcastle disease virus in north Queensland, Australia. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 103 (1). pp. 49-62.

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Wild aquatic birds (WABs) are considered as reservoir hosts for Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs)and may act as vectors for transferring these viruses to poultry, causing outbreaks of disease. A 3-year epidemiological study was conducted on WABs of north Queensland from April 2007 to March 2010. Swab and fresh moist faecal samples of WABs were screened to detect Newcastle disease viral (NDV) RNA by one-step real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) in multiplex primers, targeting the matrix gene. The potential reactor samples in rRT-PCR were processed for sequencing of the different NDV genes using conventional PCR. The overall NDV RNA prevalence was 3.5% for live bird samples (N = 1461) and 0.4% for faecal samples (N = 1157). Plumed whistling ducks (PWDs) had a higher prevalence (4.2%) than Pacific black ducks (pBps) (0.9%) ( χ² test, p = 0.001). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association between the proportion of reactor and non-reactor NDV RNA samples of PWDs and potential risk factors. The odds of reactor samples were 2.7 (95% Confidence Interval 1.5-4.9) times more likely in younger than older ducks (p = 0.001) (data set B, multivariate analysis). Both NDV RNA class-one and class-two types were identified in samples of WABs (12 and 59, respectively) (Supplementary Table 1). Phylogenetic analysis of the matrix gene identified two reactor sequences of class-one type NDV RNA (PWD-48 and 55) which were closely related to the sequences of Australian Ibis and duck isolates (Fig. 2). Another reactor sample sequence was determined as class-two type NDV RNA (PWD-46, avirulent) based on analysis of the matrix and fusion genes which was more similar to the sequences of Australian 1-2 progenitor virus and vaccine strain virus (Figs. 3 and 4). Our findings of higher prevalence in PWDs along with confirmation of class-one and class-two type NDV RNAs will significantly contribute to the design of surveillance programs for NDVs in northern Australia.

Item ID: 22218
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1873-1716
Keywords: wild aquatic birds, Newcastle disease virus, monitoring, north Queensland of Australia
Funders: Australian Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre (AB-CRC), Australian Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Date Deposited: 28 Jun 2012 16:17
FoR Codes: 06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0605 Microbiology > 060506 Virology @ 100%
SEO Codes: 83 ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND ANIMAL PRIMARY PRODUCTS > 8303 Livestock Raising > 830309 Poultry @ 100%
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