Diagnosis and treatment of hepatobiliary and pancreatic disorders of the dog and cat

Squires, Richard A. (2005) Diagnosis and treatment of hepatobiliary and pancreatic disorders of the dog and cat. In: Proceedings of a 1-day BSAVA Continuing Education Module, "Gastroenterology 1". pp. 1-43. From: 1-day BSAVA Continuing Education Module, "Gastroenterology 1", 8 November 2005, Gloucester, UK.

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Abstract

Diagnosis of hepatobiliary diseases – An overview: [Extract] The liver has many, diverse functions within the body and this is reflected in the many consequences of liver dysfunction. Like the kidneys, the liver has considerable functional reserve, so that significant hepatobiliary disease can exist before signs of dysfunction become evident. Clinical features of early liver disease are non-specific and include polyuria/polydipsia (PU/PD), vomiting, lethargy and inappetence. Findings that are suggestive of more severe hepatobiliary disease include: icterus, hyperammonaemia (leading to hepatic encephalopathy), hypoglycaemia, ascites and haemostatic disorders. Needless to say, there are many other causes of most of these clinical findings.

Treatment of hepatobiliary disorders – an overview: [Extract] Surprisingly few studies have been done to evaluate the efficacy (or otherwise) of drugs used to treat hepatobiliary disease in dogs and cats. It would be ideal if randomized, double-blind placebocontrolled clinical trials formed the basis of many of our treatment choices. In reality, no such trials have been done and most of our clinical decisions are based upon small, non-randomized retrospective studies or extrapolations from human medicine based upon a reasonable understanding of underlying pathophysiology.

An international group of veterinary hepatologists is now in the process of standardizing nomenclature as a prerequisite for commencing multi-centre collaborative studies. It is to be hoped that, in the coming years, high-quality scientific studies will be carried out and published as peerreviewed scientific articles, to allow a much more rational approach to therapy of hepatobiliary diseases, one based on high-quality evidence. However, that is for the future. Much of what follows is based upon rather flimsy evidence, but represents a summary of current practices.

Exocrine pancreatic disorders: [Extract] Pancreatitis is a relatively common diagnosis in dogs and is being diagnosed with increasing frequency in cats. The true incidence of pancreatitis in dogs and cats is uncertain. It is likely that many cases are missed and, conversely, pancreatitis may sometimes be diagnosed incorrectly in patients with other gastrointestinal diseases.

Item ID: 18402
Item Type: Conference Item (Non-Refereed Research Paper)
Date Deposited: 11 Sep 2011 09:10
FoR Codes: 07 AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES > 0707 Veterinary Sciences > 070706 Veterinary Medicine @ 100%
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