Co-infections with Plasmodium falciparum, Schistosoma mansoni and intestinal helminths among schoolchildren in endemic areas of northwestern Tanzania

Mazigo, Humphrey D., Waihenya, Rebecca , Lwambo, Nicholas J.S. , Mnyone, Ladislaus L ., Mahande, Aneth M ., Seni, Jeremiah , Zinga, Maria , Kapesa, Anthony , Kweka, Eliningaya J., Mshana, Stephen E., Heukelbach, Jorg, and Mkoji, Gerald M. (2010) Co-infections with Plasmodium falciparum, Schistosoma mansoni and intestinal helminths among schoolchildren in endemic areas of northwestern Tanzania. Parasites & Vectors, 3 (44). pp. 1-7.

PDF (Published Version) - Published Version
Download (664kB)
View at Publisher Website:


Background Malaria, schistosomiasis and intestinal helminth infections are causes of high morbidity in most tropical parts of the world. Even though these infections often co-exist, most studies focus on individual diseases. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum-malaria, intestinal schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminth infections, and the respective co-infections, among schoolchildren in northwest Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among schoolchildren living in villages located close to the shores of Lake Victoria. The Kato Katz technique was employed to screen faecal samples for S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminth eggs. Giemsa stained thick and thin blood smears were analysed for the presence of malaria parasites. Results Of the 400 children included in the study, 218 (54.5%) were infected with a single parasite species, 116 (29%) with two or more species, and 66 (16.5%) had no infection. The prevalences of P. falciparum and S. mansoni were 13.5% (95% CI, 10.2-16.8), and 64.3% (95% CI, 59.6-68.9) respectively. Prevalence of hookworm infection was 38% (95% CI, 33.2-42.8). A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were not detected. Of the children 26.5% (95% CI, 21.9-30.6) that harbored two parasite species, combination of S. mansoni and hookworm co-infections was the most common (69%). Prevalence of S. mansoni - P. falciparum co-infections was 22.6% (95%CI, 15.3-31.3) and that of hookworm - P. falciparum co-infections 5.7% (95%CI, 2.6-12.8). Prevalence of co-infection of P. falciparum, S. mansoni and hookworm was 2.8% (95%CI, 1.15-4.4). Conclusion Multiple parasitic infections are common among schoolchildren in rural northwest Tanzania. These findings can be used for the design and implementation of sound intervention strategies to mitigate morbidity and co-morbidity.

Item ID: 16983
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1756-3305
Additional Information:

© 2010 Mazigo et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Date Deposited: 13 May 2011 05:11
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111799 Public Health and Health Services not elsewhere classified @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) > 920499 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) not elsewhere classified @ 100%
Downloads: Total: 980
Last 12 Months: 143
More Statistics

Actions (Repository Staff Only)

Item Control Page Item Control Page