Therapeutic perspective: starting an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker in a diabetic patient

Jarred, Ghassan, and Kennedy, R. Lee (2010) Therapeutic perspective: starting an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker in a diabetic patient. Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1 (1). pp. 23-28.

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There are extensive data confirming involvement of the renin-angiotensin system in microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes. Blockade of the system with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) is regarded as the first-line approach to managing hypertension and end-organ protection in patients with diabetes. ACE inhibitors are still the preferred agents for most patients. Dose should be lower with renal impairment unless an agent which is not excreted by the kidneys is chosen. Dose should be titrated up to the maximum tolerated to optimize end-organ protection, and intermediate-acting agents should be given in a twice daily divided dose when higher doses are used. Electrolytes should be checked before commencing, 1-2 weeks later, and after each dose increment. A modest decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and increase in creatinine often occurs with ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The agents may need to be discontinued if eGFR decreases by >15%, if creatinine increases by >20%, or if hyperkalaemia develops. Cough occurs in 5-10% of patients taking ACE inhibitor, but not with ARBs. Angioedema is probably equally common with ACE inhibitor or ARBs. It is not widely appreciated that ACE inhibitors may precipitate hypoglycaemia in patients taking glucose-lowering medication. The combination of ACE inhibitor and ARB is not routinely indicated for either hypertension or end-organ protection. While patients should not be denied the undoubted benefits of these important classes of drugs, we should also guard against their indiscriminate use in patients with diabetes. We must also ensure that patients receive appropriate counselling and monitoring.

Item ID: 16553
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2042-0196
Keywords: diabetes, hypertension, renal impairment, hyperkalaemia, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin II receptor blocker, cough, angioedema
Date Deposited: 15 May 2011 00:03
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1103 Clinical Sciences > 110306 Endocrinology @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920104 Diabetes @ 100%
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