Petrology and textual evolution of granites associated with tin and rare-metals mineralization at the Pitinga mine, Amazonas, Brazil

Lenharo, Sara Lais Rahal, Pollard, Peter J., and Born, Helmut (2003) Petrology and textual evolution of granites associated with tin and rare-metals mineralization at the Pitinga mine, Amazonas, Brazil. Lithos, 66 (1-2). pp. 37-61.

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Abstract

The Água Boa and Madeira igneous complexes at the Pitinga mine were emplaced into acid volcanic rocks of the Paleoproterozoic Iricoumé Group, and host major tin, rare-metal (Zr, Nb, Ta, Y, REE) and cryolite mineralization. The igneous complexes are elongate NE–SW and each is composed of three major facies that, in order of emplacement, include porphyritic and equigranular rapakivi granite and biotite granite in both igneous complexes, followed by topaz granite in the Água Boa igneous complex (ABIC) and albite granite in the Madeira igneous complex (MIC).

Rapakivi, porphyritic and granophyric textures observed in the granites are interpreted to reflect multiple stages of crystallization at different pressures (depths). Decompression during ascent shifted the magmas into the plagioclase stability field, causing partial resorption of quartz, with subsequent growth at lower pressure. Fluid saturation and separation probably occurred after final emplacement at shallow levels.

Temperature and pressure estimates based on phase relations and zircon concentrations range from a maximum of 930 °C and 5 kbar for the rapakivi granites to below 650 °C and 1 kbar for the peralkaline albite granite. This suggests initial crystallization of early intrusive phases at around 15 km depth, with final emplacement of more volatile-rich crystal-mush at a depth of 0.5–1 km.

Accessory minerals, including zircon, thorite, monazite, columbite–tantalite, cassiterite, bastnaesite and xenotime are present in almost all facies of the Água Boa and Madeira igneous complexes, attesting to the highly evolved character of the magmas. The presence of magnetite and/or primary cassiterite indicate crystallization under oxidizing conditions above the NNO buffer.

The evolutionary sequence and Nd isotope characteristics (TDM=2.2–2.4 Ga) of the Pitinga granites are similar to those of other Proterozoic rapakivi granites. However, petrographic, geochemical and Nd isotopic data (var epsilonNdinitial=−2.1 to +0.5) suggest that the different facies of the Pitinga granites were derived from different crustal sources with variable input of a mantle component.

Item ID: 13797
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1872-6143
Keywords: granites; Pitinga; textural evolution; tin; rare metals
Date Deposited: 04 Nov 2010 02:53
FoR Codes: 04 EARTH SCIENCES > 0403 Geology > 040307 Ore Deposit Petrology @ 100%
SEO Codes: 84 MINERAL RESOURCES (excl. Energy Resources) > 8499 Other Mineral Resources (excl. Energy Resources) > 849999 Mineral Resources (excl. Energy Resources) not elsewhere classified @ 100%
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