Pressure Injury: An Exploration of the Relationship between Risk Factors and Interface Pressure

Gardner, Anne, Dunk, Ann Marie, Eggert, Marlene, Gardner, Glenn, and Wellman, David (2006) Pressure Injury: An Exploration of the Relationship between Risk Factors and Interface Pressure. Primary Intention: the Australian Journal of Wound Management, 14 (4). pp. 140-149.

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Pressure injuries are a serious risk for patients admitted to hospital and are thought to result from a number of forces operating on skin tissue (pressure, shear and friction). Most research on interface pressure (IP) has taken place using healthy volunteers or mannequins. Little is currently known about the relationship between pressure injury risk and IP for hospital patients.

This relationship was investigated with a sample of 121 adult hospital patients. Pressure injury risk was evaluated using the Waterlow Risk Assessment Tool (WRAT) and IP was measured at the sacrum using a Tekscan ClinSeat TM IP sensor mat. Other factors considered were body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, reason for hospital admission, comorbidities and admission route to hospital. Patients were classified according to WRAT categories ('low risk', 'at risk', 'high risk', 'very high risk') and then remained still on a standard hospital mattress for 10 minutes while IP was measured.

Participants in the 'low risk' group were significantly younger than all other groups (p<0.001) and there were some group differences in BMI. IP readings were compared between the 'low risk' group and all of the participants at greater risk. The 'low risk' group had significantly lower IP at the sacrum on a standard hospital mattress than those at greater risk (p=0.002). Those at greater risk tended to have IP readings at the low end of the compromised IP range.

This study is significant because it describes a new, clinically relevant methodology and presents findings that challenge clinician assumptions about the relationships between pressure injury risk assessment and IP.

Item ID: 10398
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1323-2495
Date Deposited: 16 Apr 2010 05:01
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1110 Nursing > 111003 Clinical Nursing: Secondary (Acute Care) @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9202 Health and Support Services > 920210 Nursing @ 100%
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