Early formed regional antiforms and synforms that fold younger matrix schistosities: their effect on sites of mineral growth

Bell, T. H., Ham, A.P., and Hickey, K.A. (2003) Early formed regional antiforms and synforms that fold younger matrix schistosities: their effect on sites of mineral growth. Tectonophysics, 367 (3-4). pp. 253-278.

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Abstract

In the metamorphic cores of many orogenic belts, large macroscopic folds in compositional layering also appear to fold one or more pervasive matrix foliations. The latter geometry suggests the folds formed relatively late in the tectonic history, after foliation development. However, microstructural analysis of four examples of such folds suggests this is not the case. The folds formed relatively early in the orogenic history and are the end product of multiple, near orthogonal, overprinting bulk shortening events. Once large macroscopic folds initiate, they may tighten further during successive periods of sub-parallel shortening, folding or reactivation of foliations that develop during intervening periods of near orthogonal shortening. Reactivation of the compositional layering defining the fold limbs causes foliation to be rotated into parallelism with the limbs. Multiple periods of porphyroblast growth accompanied the multiple phases of deformation that postdated the initial development of these folds. Some of these phases of deformation were attended by the development of large numbers of same asymmetry spiral-shaped inclusion trails in porphyroblasts on one limb of the fold and not the other, or larger numbers of opposite asymmetry spirals on the other limb, or similar numbers of the same asymmetry spirals on both limbs. Significantly, the largest disparity in numbers from limb to limb occurred for the first of these cases. For all four regional folds examined, the structural relationships that accompanied these large disparities were identical. In each case the shear sense operating on steeply dipping foliations was opposite to that required to originally develop the fold. Reactivation of the folded compositional layering was not possible for this shear sense. This favoured the development of sites of approximately coaxial shortening early during the deformation history, enhancing microfracture and promoting the growth of porphyroblasts on this limb in comparision to the other. These distributions of inclusion trail geometries from limb to limb cannot be explained by porphyroblast rotation, or folding of pre-existing rotated porphyroblasts within a shear zone, but can be explained by development of the inclusion trails synchronous with successive sub-vertical and sub-horizontal foliations.

Item ID: 973
Item Type: Article (Refereed Research - C1)
Keywords: cleavage asymmetry, overprinting asymmetries, crenulation cleavage, fold mechanisms, inclusion trail asymmetry, porphyroblast nucleation and growth
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© 2003 Elsevier. : This journal is available online - use hypertext links above.

ISSN: 0040-1951
Date Deposited: 03 Nov 2006
FoR Codes: 04 EARTH SCIENCES > 0403 Geology > 040312 Structural Geology @ 100%
SEO Codes: 97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970104 Expanding Knowledge in the Earth Sciences @ 100%
Citation Count from Web of Science Web of Science 35
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