An update on aspects of viral gastrointestinal diseases of dogs and cats

Squires, RA (2003) An update on aspects of viral gastrointestinal diseases of dogs and cats. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 51 (6). pp. 252-261.

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Abstract

Viruses commonly cause gastrointestinal illnesses in dogs and cats that range in severity from mild diarrhoea to malignant neoplasia. Perpetual evolution of viruses is reflected in changing disease patterns, so that familiar viruses are sometimes discovered to cause new or unexpected diseases. For example, canine parvovirus (CPV) has regained the ability to infect felids and cause a panleucopenia-like illness. Feline panleucopenia virus (FPV) has been shown to cause “fading” in young kittens and has recently been implicated as a possible cause of feline idiopathic cardiomyopathy. Molecular scrutiny of viral diseases sometimes permits deeper understanding of pathogenesis and epizootiology. Feline gastrointestinal lymphomas have not, in the past, been strongly associated with retroviral infections, yet some of these tumours harbour retroviral proviruses. Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) may play a role in lymphomagenesis, even in cats diagnosed as uninfected using conventional criteria. There is strong evidence that feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) can also be oncogenic. The variant feline coronaviruses that cause invariably-fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) arise by sporadic mutation of an ubiquitous and only mildly pathogenic feline enteric coronavirus (FECV); a finding that has substantial management implications for cat breeders and veterinarians. Conversely, canine enteric coronavirus (CECV) shows considerable genetic and antigenic diversity but causes only mild, self-limiting diarrhoea in puppies. Routine vaccination against this virus is not recommended. Although parvoviruses, coronaviruses and retroviruses are the most important known viral causes of canine and feline gastrointestinal disease, other viruses play a role. Feline and canine rotaviruses have combined with human rotaviruses to produce new, reassortant, zoonotic viruses. Some companion animal rotaviruses can infect humans directly. Undoubtedly, further viral causes of canine and feline gastrointestinal disease await discovery. KEY WORDS: Parvovirus, panleucopenia, coronavirus, retrovirus, feline leukaemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, enteritis, lymphoma, rotavirus, torovirus, dog, cat, companion animal

Item ID: 9622
Item Type: Article (Refereed Research - C1)
Keywords: Parvovirus; panleucopenia; coronavirus; retrovirus; feline leukaemia virus; feline immunodeficiency virus; enteritis; lymphoma; rotavirus; torovirus; dog; cat; companion animal
ISSN: 1176-0710
Date Deposited: 19 Apr 2010 04:34
FoR Codes: 07 AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES > 0707 Veterinary Sciences > 070706 Veterinary Medicine @ 100%
SEO Codes: 86 MANUFACTURING > 8609 Veterinary Pharmaceutical Products > 860902 Veterinary Diagnostics @ 100%
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