Lava tube cave tourism on the Big Island of Hawaii: a low impact tour model
King, Lisa M., Shick, Harry, and Brattstrom, Ted (2008) Lava tube cave tourism on the Big Island of Hawaii: a low impact tour model. In: Proceedings of the Inaugural Global Geotourism Conference 2008, pp. 225-230. From: Inaugural Global Geotourism Conference 2008 , 17-20 August 2008, Fremantle, WA, Australia.
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Hawaii's Big Island lava tube caves are valued for their geological, biological and archaeological richness. Caves are much more vulnerable to cumulative and irreparable human disturbance than surface environments. Some Hawaiian lava tubes have been damaged by a variety of direct and indirect human activities such as land clearing, sewage disposal, and human visitation. As additional lava tubes are developed for tourism-related purposes, it is important to document and disseminate successful low impact models of visitation to these unique and fragile environments. This paper briefly introduces the values of and threats to Big Island lava tube systems. The typical lava tube 'show cave' experience is presented and two low impact tours currently operating on the Big Island in Pua Po'o and Kazumura lava tubes are reported, and a model developed. These tours are increasing public appreciation and grassroots support for conserving Hawaii's lava tubes.
|Item Type:||Conference Item (Refereed Research Paper - E1)|
|Keywords:||geotourism; lava tube caves; Big Island of Hawaii; Hawaii; tourism; Pua Po'o; Kazumura|
|Date Deposited:||14 Dec 2009 04:14|
|FoR Codes:||15 COMMERCE, MANAGEMENT, TOURISM AND SERVICES > 1506 Tourism > 150601 Impacts of Tourism @ 50%
15 COMMERCE, MANAGEMENT, TOURISM AND SERVICES > 1506 Tourism > 150606 Tourist Behaviour and Visitor Experience @ 50%
|SEO Codes:||96 ENVIRONMENT > 9699 Other Environment > 969999 Environment not elsewhere classified @ 50%
90 COMMERCIAL SERVICES AND TOURISM > 9003 Tourism > 900399 Tourism not elsewhere classified @ 50%