Far-field vessel wakes in Tallinn Bay
Parnell, Kevin, Delpeche, Nicole, Didenkulova, Ira, Dolphin, Tony, Erm, Ants, Kask, Andres, Kelpsaite, Loreta, Kurennoy, Dimitry, Quak, Ewald, Raamet, Andrus, Soomere, Tarmo, Terentjeva, Anna, Torsvik, Tomas, and Zaitseva-Parnaste, Inga (2008) Far-field vessel wakes in Tallinn Bay. Estonian Journal of Engineering, 14 (4). pp. 273-302.
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The properties of wave fields induced by high-speed ferries and recently introduced conventional ferries with increased cruise speeds are analysed for a site in Tallinn Bay, the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, located about 3 km from the sailing line and up to 8 km from the wave production area. The analysis is based on high-resolution profiling of the water surface for about 650 wakes from fast ferries, measured during 4 weeks in June–July 2008. The new large conventional ferries with cruise speeds of 25–30 knots (~ 45–55 km/h) sail at near-critical speeds along extensive sections of eastern Tallinn Bay, and excite wakes equivalent to those of high-speed ferries. The peak periods of these wakes are between 10 and 13 s. The typical daily highest ship wave is approximately 1.2 m, measured prior to wake breaking. The largest recorded ship wave in calm conditions had a height of 1.5 m and in the presence of some wind wave background 1.7 m. The cumulative impact of ship wakes results in a gradual increase in the suspended matter concentration in near-bottom water over the course of a day. The largest and longest ship waves produce considerable wave runup at the coast and prevent several coastal sections from achieving an equilibrium state. The largest ship waves have an asymmetric shape both in terms of the water surface elevation above and below the mean level and in terms of the shape of the wave front and back. The overall intensity of anthropogenic waves has remained at the same level as it was in the year 2002, although the ships that produced the highest waves in the past are no longer in service.
|Item Type:||Article (Refereed Research - C1)|
|Keywords:||ship wakes, fast ferries, Gulf of FInland, Tallinn Bay, wave measurements|
|Date Deposited:||11 Nov 2009 22:57|
|FoR Codes:||04 EARTH SCIENCES > 0406 Physical Geography and Environmental Geoscience > 040601 Geomorphology and Regolith and Landscape Evolution @ 40%
04 EARTH SCIENCES > 0405 Oceanography > 040503 Physical Oceanography @ 30%
09 ENGINEERING > 0911 Maritime Engineering > 091104 Ship and Platform Hydrodynamics @ 30%
|SEO Codes:||88 TRANSPORT > 8802 Water Transport > 880204 Passenger Water Transport @ 30%
88 TRANSPORT > 8898 Environmentally Sustainable Transport > 889899 Environmentally Sustainable Transport not elsewhere classified @ 40%
96 ENVIRONMENT > 9609 Land and Water Management > 960902 Coastal and Estuarine Land Management @ 30%
|Citation Count from Scopus||