Ammonium phosphate slurry rheology and particle properties - The influence of Fe(III) and A(III) impurities, solid concentration and degree of neutralization
Campbell, G.R., Leong, Y.K., Berndt, C.C., and Liow, J.L. (2006) Ammonium phosphate slurry rheology and particle properties - The influence of Fe(III) and A(III) impurities, solid concentration and degree of neutralization. Chemical Engineering Science, 61 (17). pp. 5856-5866.
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Ammonium phosphate slurries are produced from impure phosphoric acid that contains Fe(III), Al(III) and Mg(II) ions. The insolubility of these metal ions and the onset of solid formation determined as a function of pH or mole ratio (MR) of ammonia to phosphoric acid were consistent with the trend for the pH of formation of the first hydrolysis product that decreases in the following order: Fe(III)<Al(III)<Mg(II). The hydrolysis products of Fe(III) formed at pH>2.0 or MR>0.5 initiate ammonium phosphate crystallization, reduce the size of particles formed and generate attractive interparticle forces. Similarly, the Al(III) hydrolysis products formed later at pH>2.6 MR>0.7), will also initiate further crystallization, adsorb on particles and produce attractive forces. The attractive forces and the high number concentration of particle—particle interactions are responsible for the increased viscosity and non-Newtonian flow behavior displayed at increasing Fe(III) and Al(III) concentration. Mg(II) ions are not hydrolyzed at MR<1.0 so its effect on rheology is negligible and its effect at MR<1.0 is also small as its concentration is much smaller than that of Fe(III) and Al(III) ions. The change in slurry viscosity with the degree of neutralization is also explained in terms of particle size distribution, solubility and solids concentration variations.
|Item Type:||Article (Refereed Research - C1)|
|Keywords:||fertilisers; MAP; DAP; flocculation; iron complexes; pH control|
|Date Deposited:||28 Sep 2009 05:07|
|FoR Codes:||09 ENGINEERING > 0915 Interdisciplinary Engineering > 091504 Fluidisation and Fluid Mechanics @ 100%|
|SEO Codes:||97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970102 Expanding Knowledge in the Physical Sciences @ 100%|
|Citation Count from Web of Science||