Acute toxicity of sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, and potassium chloride and their effects on the hemolymph composition and gill structure of early juvenile blue swimmer crabs (Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1758) (Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae)

Romano, Nicholas, and Zeng, Chaoshu (2007) Acute toxicity of sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, and potassium chloride and their effects on the hemolymph composition and gill structure of early juvenile blue swimmer crabs (Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1758) (Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 26 (9). pp. 1955-1962.

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Abstract

Various nutrients, including K+ and NO−3, are increasingly being discharged into aquatic systems via anthropogenic sources, which may impact marine organisms. The present study was conducted on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) early juveniles to determine the acute toxicity of NaNO3, KNO3, and KCl; if a toxicity interaction exists between K+ and NO−3; the hemolymph Na+, K+, and Ca2+ changes; and the gill histopathological alterations following exposure to elevated NaNO3, KNO3, and KCl levels. A total of 20 replicate crabs were exposed to each of the five NaNO3, KNO3, and KCl concentrations for 96 h. After 96 h, the surviving crabs were sampled for hemolymph Na+, K+, and Ca2+ levels and fixed for histological examination of the anterior gills. The 96-h median lethal concentration of NaNO3-N, KNO3-N, KNO3-K, and KCl-K was 3,452, 112, 312, and 356 mg/L, respectively, for early P. pelagicus juveniles. The toxicity of NaNO3-N was significantly less (p < 0.01) than that of KNO3-N. Furthermore, at the same K+ levels, KNO3-K was significantly (p < 0.05) more toxic than KCl-K, indicating a toxicity interaction between K+ and NO−3. Following exposure to elevated KNO3 and KCl levels, the crabs had significantly higher (p < 0.01) hemolymph K+ levels compared to the control. Conversely, following exposure to elevated NaNO3 concentrations, the crabs had significantly higher (p < 0.01) hemolymph Na+ levels but significantly lower (p < 0.01) hemolymph K+ levels. Despite the markedly different hemolymph ionic changes following NaNO3 and KNO3/KCl exposure, the histopathological changes to the anterior gill lamellae of the crabs appeared to be similar, including lamellae swelling, epithelial thickening, pillar cell disruption, necrosis, and distortion.

Item ID: 2825
Item Type: Article (Refereed Research - C1)
Keywords: Portunus pelagicus; early juveniles; nitrate/potassium toxicity; gill histology; hemolymph
ISSN: 1552-8618
Date Deposited: 07 Oct 2009 03:51
FoR Codes: 05 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 0599 Other Environmental Sciences > 059999 Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified @ 50%
07 AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES > 0704 Fisheries Sciences > 070401 Aquaculture @ 50%
SEO Codes: 83 ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND ANIMAL PRIMARY PRODUCTS > 8301 Fisheries - Aquaculture > 830199 Fisheries - Aquaculture not elsewhere classified @ 60%
97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970106 Expanding Knowledge in the Biological Sciences @ 40%
Citation Count from Web of Science Web of Science 11
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