Ocean urea fertilization for carbon credits poses high ecological risks
Glibert, PM, Azanza, R, Burford, M, Furuya, K, Abal, E, Al-Azri, A, Al-Yamani, F, Andersen, P, Anderson, DM, Beardall, J, Berg, GM, Brand, L, Bronk, D, Brookes, J, Burkholder, J-AM, Cembella, A, Cochlan, WP, Collier, JL, Collos, Y, Diaz, D, Doblin, M, Drennen, T, Dyhrman, S, Fukuyo, Y, Furnas, M, Galloway, J, Graneli, E, Ha, DV, Hallegraeff, G, Harrison, J, Harrison, PJ, Heil, CA, Heimann, Kirsten, Howarth, R, Jauzein, C, Kana, AA, Kana, TM, Kim, H, Kudela, R, Legrand, C, Mallin, M, Mulholland, M, Murray, S, ONeil, Judith, Pitcher, G, Qi, Y, Rabalais, N, Raine, R, Seitzinger, S, Salomon, PS, Solomon, C, Stoecker, DK, Usup, G, Wilson, J, Yin, K, Zhou, M, and Zhu, M (2008) Ocean urea fertilization for carbon credits poses high ecological risks. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 56 (6). pp. 1049-1056.
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The proposed plan for enrichment of the Sulu Sea, Philippines, a region of rich marine biodiversity, with thousands of tonnes of urea in order to stimulate algal blooms and sequester carbon is ﬂawed for multiple reasons. Urea is preferentially used as a nitrogen source by some cyanobacteria and dinoﬂagellates, many of which are neutrally or positively buoyant. Biological pumps to the deep sea are classically leaky, and the inefﬁcient burial of new biomass makes the estimation of a net loss of carbon from the atmosphere questionable at best. The potential for growth of toxic dinoﬂagellates is also high, as many grow well on urea and some even increase their toxicity when grown on urea. Many toxic dinoﬂagellates form cysts which can settle to the sediment and germinate in subsequent years, forming new blooms even without further fertilization. If large-scale blooms do occur, it is likely that they will contribute to hypoxia in the bottom waters upon decomposition. Lastly, urea production requires fossil fuel usage, further limiting the potential for net carbon sequestration. The environmental and economic impacts are potentially great and need to be rigorously assessed.
|Item Type:||Article (Refereed Research - C1)|
|Keywords:||Urea dumping, Ocean fertilization, Carbon credits, Sulu Sea, Carbon sequestration, Harmful algae, Toxic dinoﬂagellates, Cyanobacteria, Hypoxia|
|Date Deposited:||29 Jul 2008|
|FoR Codes:||06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0602 Ecology > 060205 Marine and Estuarine Ecology (incl Marine Ichthyology) @ 0%|
|Citation Count from Web of Science||
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