Update on canine and feline parvoviral infections: who's infecting who?

Squires, Richard A. (2008) Update on canine and feline parvoviral infections: who's infecting who? New Zealand Veterinary Association Companion Animal Society Newsletter, 19 (1). pp. 28-30.

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Abstract

[Extract] In the northern hemisphere's summer of 1978, Canine parvovirus (CPV), the causative agent of canine parvoviral enteritis, appeared and spread rapidly all over the world. Serological surveys subsequently showed that dogs had not encountered CPV before 1974 in Europe. It is thought that CPV arose by mutation of a precursor parvovirus, probably one that had been circulating in Europe for some time among one or more carnivore species. An alternative and enticing suggestion was that CPV had arisen from a modified live feline panleucopenia vaccine virus; however this has not been supported by subsequent study. All CPV isolates clearly formed a single tight group, and were considered most likely to have been derived from a single, common ancestral virus. CPV is extremely closely related to feline panleucopenia virus (FPV) and has recently been described as a "host range variant of a feline virus". Although remarkably similar to FPV, the 1978 strain of CPV specifically infected members of Canidae, whereas FPV was known to infect and cause disease in felids, procyonids (raccoons), mink (Mustela vison) and possibly foxes (Vulpes spp.), but not dogs.

Feline panleucopenia (FP) is a viral disease characterised by fever, depression, anorexia, vomiting and diarrhoea. It has been recognised for about 100 years and is nowadays uncommonly diagnosed in pet cats in UK. In the past, FP was caused exclusively by FPV. However, a recent study showed that a disease identical to FP can be caused experimentally by CPV–2a and CPV–2b. CPV was isolated from a naturally infected 1.5 year-old pet cat in Japan that died of a disease indistinguishable from FP and also from cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and a Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris Altaica) with diarrhoea. CPV, including a new variant referred to as CPV–2c by some researchers, has been found infecting Vietnamese and Taiwanese leopard cats (Felis bengalensis). This new variant virus caused disease when administered to experimental specific pathogen free (SPF) cats. Whether or not it is appropriate to refer to CPV-induced felid enteritis as FP is merely a semantic issue.

Item ID: 19053
Item Type: Article (Non-Refereed Research)
ISSN: 1173-6941
Date Deposited: 13 Oct 2011 07:27
FoR Codes: 07 AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES > 0707 Veterinary Sciences > 070706 Veterinary Medicine @ 100%
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