Three long lava flows in north Queensland

Stephenson, P.J., Burch-Johnson, A.T., Stanton, D., and Whitehead, P.W. (1998) Three long lava flows in north Queensland. Journal of Geophysical Research: solid earth, 103 (B11). pp. 27359-27370.

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Abstract

The Kinrara, Toomba, and Undara basaltic lava flows are from 55 to 160 km long and range in age from 13 to 190 ka. The lavas were emplaced down low gradients (0.2° to 0.4°) with volumes ranging up to 30 km3. They were not unusually hot at eruption (1130°–1160°) nor unusually fluid. Gentle topography controlled the flows, and shallow drainage lines captured them. Lava tubes operated in places, and some drained to form caves. Injection under surface crust was widespread, producing inflation features ranging from tumuli and low plateaus to extensive ridges. Sustained eruption was essential for the development of the long flows, but each is composite, with pauses between successive pulses that partially covered the earlier, longer flows. The lava structures are mainly pahoehoe but some ‘a’a lavas are present. Of the three volcanoes involved, Undara is a simple low-angle lava cone with a 200-m-wide crater, Toomba is a low-angled cone with several eruption centers, and Kinrara has a deep crater with evidence of strong fountaining. Effusion rates are not known but may have been relatively low, similar to those observed in Hawaiian volcanoes. Lava tubes, most of which remained undrained, are believed to have been of major importance in flow emplacement. Given the evidence of successive flows and the time needed to develop widespread inflation, it is suggested that the two long flows over 100 km involved many decades of eruption.

Item ID: 11796
Item Type: Article (Refereed Research - C1)
ISSN: 1934-8592
Date Deposited: 01 Sep 2010 04:29
FoR Codes: 04 EARTH SCIENCES > 0403 Geology > 040314 Volcanology @ 40%
04 EARTH SCIENCES > 0406 Physical Geography and Environmental Geoscience > 040601 Geomorphology and Regolith and Landscape Evolution @ 60%
SEO Codes: 97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970104 Expanding Knowledge in the Earth Sciences @ 100%
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